#1 How can scientists empathize with their participants if they had not taken the substance themselves?

John Lilly is a psychedelic scientist and explorer extraordinaire. He is known for a number of things such as: researching isolation and then developing sensory deprivation tanks to explore states of consciousness devoid of any stimuli, studying the effects of LSD while in his isolation tanks, working with dolphins including giving LSD to them, and spending time and teaching at the Esalen Institute in California.